Astankova Vera Petrovna, Candidate of philological sciences, associate professor, sub-department of German and French languages, Saratov State Law Academy (1 Volskaya street, Saratov, Russia), email@example.com
Kalinina Marina Georgievna, Candidate of philological sciences, associate professor, sub-department of German and French languages, Saratov State Law Academy (1 Volskaya street, Saratov, Russia), firstname.lastname@example.org
Sakovets Svetlana Alexandrovna, Candidate of philological sciences, associate professor, sub-department of German and French languages, Saratov State Law Academy (1 Volskaya street, Saratov, Russia), email@example.com
Background. The relevance of the study is determined by the mode of regarding the sentence as a special naming unit of the language, the verb (namely the verbs of motion, causative verbs, and the verbs of possession of the German language) from the onomasiological viewpoint. Application of the principles of onomasiological analysis helps to reveal the linguistic basis of the nomination mechanism, the linguistic techniques used for denotation of certain situations, reveals the wide range of the ways of applying the onomasiological approach to the analysis of diverse linguistic phenomena. The aim of the study is to identify the patterns of the dynamic type situations, designated by the sentences with verbs of motion, possession, with causative verbs in the nuclear position, to reveal the specific character of the language technique, namely the conditions for the possibility of naming different types of situations, denoted by sentences in which these verbs are in the nuclear position.
Materials and methods. The data for the study was obtained from the texts of contemporary German fiction writers, legal texts, media texts, with reference to the explanatory German dictionaries data. Text selection was done by continuous sampling. The onomasiological analysis technique was used to deal with linguistic phenomena, which means that the technique was efficient for identifying the denotation of the unit and the character of the naming process. The method of component analysis was used to determine the compositional change in the seme structure of the verbs studied.
Results. The study revealed the dynamic types of situations designated by the sentences with the verbs of motion and possession, with causative verbs in the nuclear position. The sentences with causative verbs in the nuclear positions describe the situation of dynamic action, which is aimed to alter the location of objects; they are characterized by space limit orientation. The sentences with the verbs of motion in the nuclear position are likely to describe extralinguistic situations denoting independent movement of the subject in particular environment. The dynamic model sentences with the meaning of possession denote situations manifesting a change of possessive relationship between the Subject and the Object.
Conclusions. The process of naming different situations of extralinguistic reality by sentences is marked by a complete redefinition of the established differential and potential elements in the semantic structure of verbs studied, which makes the sentences with such verbs in the nuclear position together with the nouns of different denotative reference in the position of the Subject and the Object (Locator/Orienting point) able to name the situation of dynamic type.
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